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Unit 8. This, that, these, those, one, ones
(использование местоимений this, that, these, those, one, ones)

Main points

1. You use the demonstrative pronouns "this", "that", "these", and "those" when you are pointing to physical objects. "This" and "these" refer to things near you, "that" and "those" refer to things farther away.

This is a list of rules.

"I brought you these". Adam held out a bag of grapes..

That looks interesting.

Those are mine.

You can also use "this", "that", "these", and "those" as determiners in front of nouns. See Unit 11.

This book was a present from my mother.

When did you buy that hat?

2. You use "this", "that", "these", and "those" when you are identifying or introducing people, or asking who they are.

Who's this?

These are my children, Susan and Paul.

Was that Patrick on the phone?

3. You use "this", "that", "these", and "those" to refer back to things that have already been mentioned.

That was an interesting word you used jusf now.

More money is being pumped into the education system, and we assume this will continue.

"Let's go to the cinema." - "That's a good idea".

These are not easy questions to answer.

You also use "this" and "these" to refer forward to things you are going to mention.

This is what I want to say: it wasn't my idea.

These are the topics we will be looking at next week: how the accident happened, whether it could have been avoided, and who was to blame.

This is the important point: you must never see her again.

4. You use "one" or "ones" instead of a noun that has already been mentioned or is known in the situation, usually when you are adding information or contrasting two things of the same kind.

My car is the blue one.

Don't you have one with buttons instead of a zip?

Are the new curtains longer than the old ones.

You can use "which one" or "which ones" in questions.

Which one do you prefer?

Which ones were damaged?

You can say "this one", "that one", "these ones", and "those ones".

I like this one better.

We'll have those ones, thank you.

You can use "each one" or "one each", out note that there is a difference in meaning. In the following examples, "each one" means "each brother" but "one each" means "one for each child".

I've got three brothers and eacn one lives in a differenf country.

I bougnt the children one eacn.

5. In formal English, people sometimes use "one" to refer to people in general.

One has to think of the practical side of things.

One never knows what to say in sucn situations.

6. There are several other types of pronoun, which are dealt with in other units.

See Unit 27 for information on possessive pronouns.

See Unit 51 for information on "who", "whom", "whose", "which", and "what" as interrogative pronouns.

See Unit 97 and Unit 98 for information on "that", "wnich", "who", "whom", and "whose" as relative pronouns.

Most determiners, except "the", "a", "an", "every", "no", and the possessives, are also pronouns. See Unit 15, Unit 16, Unit 17 and Unit 18.

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