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Яндекс.Метрика

Unit 13. Present Perfect and Past (1) (I have done and I did)
(настоящее совершенное и простое прошедшее времена 1)

Study this example situation:
 
Unit 13. Present Perfect and Past (1) (I have done and I did) Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.
 
He has lost his key. (Present Perfect)
This means that he doesn't have his key now.

Ten minutes later:
 
Unit 13. Present Perfect and Past (1) (I have done and I did) Now Tom has found his key. He has it now.
 
Has he lost his key? (Present Perfect)
No, he hasn't. He has found it.
 
Did he lose his key? (Past Simple)
Yes, he did.
 
He lost his key (Past Simple)
but now he has found it. (Present Perfect)

The Present Perfect is a present tense. It always tells us something about now. "Tom has lost his key" = he doesn't have his key now (see Unit 7 Present Perfect (1) (I have done) (настоящее совершенное время 1)).
The Past Simple tells us only about the past. If somebody says "Tom lost his key", we don't know whether he has it now or not. We only know that he lost it at some time in the past.
Two more examples: Do not use the Present Perfect if there is no connection with the Present (for example, things that happened a long time ago): Compare: We use the Present Perfect to give new information (see Unit 7 Present Perfect (1) (I have done)
(настоящее совершенное время 1)). But if we continue to talk about it, we normally use the Past Simple: See Unit 5. Past Simple (I did)
(простое прошедшее время).
See Unit 7. Present Perfect (1) (I have done)
(настоящее совершенное время 1).
See Unit 8. Present Perfect (2) (I have done)
(настоящее совершенное время 2).
See Unit 14. Present Perfect and Past (2) (I have done and I did)
(настоящее совершенное и простое прошедшее времена 2).
See Appendix 7. American English
(американский диалект).
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