Unit 46. Reported speech (1) (He said that …)
(косвенная речь 1)
Study this example situation:
When we use reported speech, the main verb of the sentence is usually past (Tom said that… / I told her that… etc.). The rest of the sentence is usually past too:
- Tom said that he was feeling ill.
- I told her that I didn't have any money.
You can leave out that:
- Tom said (that) he was feeling ill.
- I told her (that) I didn't have any money.
In general, the Present form in direct speech changes to the Past form in reported speech:
|am/is -> was
are -> were
|do/does -> did
have/has -> had
|will -> would
can -> could
|want/like/know/go etc. -> wanted/liked/knew/went etc.|
Compare direct speech and reported speech:
The Past Simple (did / saw / knew etc.) can usually stay the same in reported speech, or you can change it to the Past Perfect (had done / had seen / had known etc.):
|direct||Tom said: ‘I woke up feeling ill, so I didn't go to work.’|
|reported||Tom said (that) he woke up feeling ill, so he didn't go to work.
Tom said (that) he had woken up feeling ill, so he hadn't gone to work.
See Unit 47 Reported speech (2)
(косвенная речь 2)
See Unit 49 Questions (2) (Do you know where …? / She asked me where …)