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Unit 50. Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so /I hope so etc.
(вспомогательные глаголы)

There are two verbs in each of these sentences:

I
She
The hotel
Where
have
can't
was
do
you
lost
come
built
live?
my keys.
to the party.
ten years ago.
 

In these examples have/can't/was/do are auxiliary (= helping) verbs.

You can use an auxiliary verb (without the rest of the sentence) when you don't want to repeat something:

Use do/does/did for the Present and Past Simple:

We use have you? / isn't she? / do they? etc. to show polite interest in what somebody has said:

Sometimes we use these ‘short questions’ to show surprise:

We use auxiliary verbs with so and neither:

Note the word order after so and neither (verb before subject):

You can use nor instead of neither:

You can also use ‘…not…either’:

I think so / I hope so etc.

After some verbs you can use so when you don't want to repeat something:

You can also say I hope so, I guess so and I'm afraid so.

The usual negative forms are:

I think so / I expect so
I hope so / I'm afraid so / I guess so
I suppose so
-> I don't think so / I don't expect so
I hope not / I'm afraid not / I guess not
I don't suppose so
or I suppose not
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