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Яндекс.Метрика

Unit 7. Present Perfect (1) (I have done)
(настоящее совершенное время 1)

Study this example situation:


 
Unit 7. Present Perfect (1) (I have done) Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it.
He has lost his key.
"He has lost his key" = He lost it and he still hasn't got it.
 
Have/ has lost is the Present Perfect Simple:
 
I/ we/ they/ you
he/ she/ it
have
has
( = I've etc.)
( = he's etc.)
finished
lost
done
been
etc.

The Present Perfect Simple is have/ has + past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/ decided etc.), but many important verbs are irregular (lost/ done/ been/ written etc.). For a list of irregular verbs, see Appendix 1. Regular and irregular verbs (правильные и неправильные глаголы).
 
When we use the Present Perfect there is always a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:

We often use the Present Perfect to give new information or to announce a recent happening:

You can use the Present Perfect with just, already and yet:
 
Just = "a short time ago":
  • "Would you like something to eat?"   "No, thanks. I've just had lunch."
  • Hello. Have you just arrived?

We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected (see also Unit 110. Still, yet and already Any more / any longer / no longer (использование данных оборотов)):

  • "Don't forget to post the letter, will you?" "I've already posted it."
  • "What time is mark leaving?" "He's already gone."
Yet = "until now" and shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences (see also Unit 110. Still, yet and already Any more / any longer / no longer (использование данных оборотов):
  • Has it stopped raining yet?
  • I've written the letter but I haven't posted it yet.

Note the difference between gone (to) and been (to):

For been (to) see also Unit 8. Present Perfect (2) (I have done) (настоящее совершенное время 2) and Unit 125. To/at/in/into (использование данных оборотов).

See Unit 8. Present Perfect (2) (I have done) (настоящее совершенное время 2).

See Unit 11. How long have you (been)…? (настоящее совершенное время).

See Unit 9. Present Perfect Continuous (I have been doing) (настоящее совершенное продолженное время).

See Unit 10. Present Perfect Continuous and Simple (I have been doing and I have done) (настоящее совершенное продолженное и настоящее совершенное времена).

See Unit 12. When…? and How long…? For and since (сравнение Past Simple и Present Perfect).

See Unit 13. Present Perfect and Past (1) (I have done and I did) (настоящее совершенное и простое прошедшее времена 1).

See Unit 14. Present Perfect and Past (2) (I have done and I did) (настоящее совершенное и простое прошедшее времена 2).

See Appendix 7. American English (американский диалект).

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