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Unit 36. Regular and irregular verbs

The Past Simple and Past Participle of regular verbs is -ed:
clean → cleaned   live → lived   paint → painted
 
Past Simple (see Unit 9):
I cleaned my shoes yesterday.
Charlie studied engineering at university.
 
We use the Past Participle for the Present Perfect and the Passive.
Present Perfect = have/has + Past Participle (see Unit 15, see Unit 16, see Unit 17):
- I have cleaned my shoes.
- Joan has lived in London for ten years.
 
Passive = be (am/is/are/was/were) + Past Participle (see Unit 20):
- These rooms are cleaned every day.
- My car was repaired last week. The Past Simple and Past Participle of irregular verbs are not -ed:
 
  make break cut
Past Simple made broke cut
Past Participle made broken cut

 
Sometimes the Past Simple and Past Participle are the same. For example:
 
  make find buy cut
Past Simple made found bought cut
Past Participle made found bought cut

- I made a cake yesterday. (Past Simple)
- I have made some coffee. (Past Participle - Present Perfect)
- Butter is made from milk. (Past Participle - Present Passive)
 
Sometimes the past simple and past participle are different. For example:
 
  break know begin go
Past Simple broke knew began went
Past Participle broken known begun gone

- Somebody broke this window last night. (Past Simple)
- Somebody has broken this window. (Past Participle - Present Perfect)
- This window was broken last night. (Past Participle - Past Passive)
 
See Appendix 1 List of irregular verbs
(список неправильных глаголов),
see Appendix 2 Irregular verbs in groups
(группы неправильных глаголов).
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